• This week, YOUR BLACK META is bringing you more F.W.B.--FARMING WHILE BLACK!--history, stats, and outlook. We've also got a video presentation by Soul Farms and Farmer While Black, Leah Penniman! And we're making our sure and methodical way toward the First Amendment of the United States Constitution . . . starting with the history and events surrounding the Constitution, itself, and the rocky, angry, angsty road to its first ten amendments: THE BILL OF RIGHTS.
  • And, as ever, we've got ya banter, ya music, ya META, and ya Mindful, to round out an especially EPIC EPISODE, if we do say so, ourselves. (And we DO!)
--Your Black Meta!

 

 

 


 

 

Support Our Community AND BE INFORMED

 

Community organizations to connect, to listen, and to be heard:
https://citizenactionny.org/about
https://citizenactionny.org/events/venues/7-grand-st-kingston-ny-12401-usa
https://riseupkingston.org/
https://riseupkingston.org/blog
Upcoming Demonstrations
Your Meta will keep you updated about upcoming opportunities to speak up and speak out. 

 

 


 

FreedomWalker's Sources and Credits

 
COFFEE & GREEN TEA COMBO

 

  • No credits this week.

 

 

THE SPRUCE

 

  • Thespruce.com
FREEDOMWALKER'S EDITORIAL
"Soul Fire Farm - Ending Racism and Injustice in the Food System." Soul Fire Farm, Youtube. August 22, 2018. [13:34] Soul Fire Farm is committed to ending racism and injustice in the food system. We raise and distribute life-giving food and act in solidarity with people marginalized by food apartheid. With deep reverence for the land and wisdom of our ancestors, we work to reclaim our collective right to belong to the earth and to have agency in the food system. We bring diverse communities together on this healing land to share skills on sustainable agriculture, natural building, spiritual activism, health and environmental justice. We are training the next generation of activist-farmers and strengthening the movements for food sovereignty and community self-determination. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mjDdYeSaEog&feature=youtu.be
K-TOWN NEWS

 

  • Almanac Weekly
  • Ulstercountyalive.com
 
MINDFUL MUSEUM

 

  • Amsterdamnews.com - Report Structural Racism Eliminated Black Farmers- Stacy M. Brown, NNPA Newswire Correspondent , 4/8/2019. 8:39am.
  • Grist.org- food/what-happen-to-American-black-farmers " The BFAA'S fight for nearly a decade has been to have the money already set aside to pay the additional class action claims be actually paid to farmers and their heirs. some have passed away over the past decade waiting for redress"

 

 


 

 

beetle's Sources, Citations, Credits, and Links

~ # ~

 

INTERNET-BASED EDUCATION

 

SPOTLIGHT: Know Your Government and the Forms it Takes
The United States is a federal republic in which the President, Congress and federal courts share powers reserved to the national government, according to its Constitution. The federal government shares sovereignty with the state governments.
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_political_ideologies
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_the_United_States
MULTIMEDIA
  1. "US History." CrashCourse, Youtube. [48 videos, last updated on February 28, 2017] John Green teaches you the history of the United States of America in 47 episodes! https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL8dPuuaLjXtMwmepBjTSG593eG7ObzO7s
  2. "U.S. Government and Politics." CrashCourse, Youtube. [50 videos, last updated on March 8, 2016] Craig Benzine (aka WheezyWaiter) teaches you about U.S. Government and Politics. https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL8dPuuaLjXtOfse2ncvffeelTrqvhrz8H
RESOURCES & ARTICLES

Democracy (Greek: literally "rule by people") is a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting. In a direct democracy, the citizens as a whole form a governing body and vote directly on each issue. In a representative democracy the citizens elect representatives from among themselves. These representatives meet to form a governing body, such as a legislature. In a constitutional democracy the powers of the majority are exercised within the framework of a representative democracy, but the constitution limits the majority and protects the minority, usually through the enjoyment by all of certain individual rights, e.g. freedom of speech, or freedom of association. "Rule of the majority" is commonly referred to as democracy. John Locke wrote: “There is no practical alternative to majority political rule – i.e., to taking the consent of the majority as the act of the whole and binding every individual. It would be next to impossible to obtain the consent of every individual before acting collectively ... No rational people could desire and constitute a society that had to dissolve straightaway because the majority was unable to make the final decision and the society was incapable of acting as one body."

 

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democracy
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Types_of_democracy
A republic (Latin: res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a “public matter”, not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are not inherited, but are attained through democracy, oligarchy or autocracy. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a hereditary monarch. In the context of American constitutional law, the definition of republic refers specifically to a form of government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body and exercise power according to the rule of law under a constitution, including separation of powers with an elected head of state, referred to as a constitutional republic or representative democracy.
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republic
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Government#Republics
Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism. Also called Western democracy, it is characterised by elections between multiple distinct political parties, a separation of powers into different branches of government, the rule of law in everyday life as part of an open society, a market economy with private property and the equal protection of human rights, civil rights, civil liberties and political freedoms for all people. To define the system in practice, liberal democracies often draw upon a constitution, either formally written or uncodified, to delineate the powers of government and enshrine the social contract. After a period of sustained expansion throughout the 20th century, liberal democracy became the predominant political system in the world. A liberal democracy may take various constitutional forms as it may be a constitutional monarchy (such as Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Spain and the United Kingdom) or a republic (such as France, India, Italy, Ireland and the United States). It may have a parliamentary system (such as Australia, Canada, India, Israel, Ireland, Italy and the United Kingdom), a presidential system (such as Indonesia and the United States) or a semi-presidential system (such as France and Romania). Liberal democracies usually have universal suffrage, granting all adult citizens the right to vote regardless of ethnicity, sex, or property ownership. However, historically some countries regarded as liberal democracies have had a more limited franchise and some do not have secret ballots. There may also be qualifications such as voters being required to register before being allowed to vote. The decisions made through elections are made not by all of the citizens but rather by those who are eligible and who choose to participate by voting. The liberal democratic constitution defines the democratic character of the state.[dubious – discuss] The purpose of a constitution is often seen as a limit on the authority of the government. Liberal democracy emphasises the separation of powers, an independent judiciary and a system of checks and balances between branches of government. Liberal democracies are likely to emphasise the importance of the state being a Rechtsstaat, i.e. a state that follows the principle of rule of law. Governmental authority is legitimately exercised only in accordance with established procedure. Many democracies use federalism—also known as vertical separation of powers—in order to prevent abuse and increase public input by dividing governing powers between municipal, provincial and national governments (e.g. Germany, where the federal government assumes the main legislative responsibilities and the federated Länder assume many executive tasks). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberal_democracy

Republicanism is a representative form of government organization. It is a political ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic. Historically, it ranges from the rule of a representative minority or oligarchy to popular sovereignty. It has had different definitions and interpretations which vary significantly based on historical context and methodological approach. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republicanism

 

Modern republicanism is a guiding political philosophy of the United States that has been a major part of American civic thought since its founding. It stresses liberty and unalienable individual rights as central values, making people sovereign as a whole; rejects monarchy, aristocracy and inherited political power, expects citizens to be virtuous and faithful in their performance of civic duties, and vilifies corruption. American republicanism was articulated and first practiced by the Founding Fathers in the 18th century. For them, "republicanism represented more than a particular form of government. It was a way of life, a core ideology, an uncompromising commitment to liberty, and a total rejection of aristocracy." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republicanism_in_the_United_States

 

 

A democratic republic is a form of government operating on principles adopted from a republic and a democracy. Rather than being a cross between two entirely separate systems, democratic republics may function on principles shared by both republics and democracies. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democratic_republic

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Government_of_the_United_States
Resources & Articles: Forms and Systems of Government
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_forms_of_government
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confederation
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Direct_democracy
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devolution
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federation
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Representative_democracy
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_democracy
THE ULTIMATE DECLARATION OF INTENTIONS
We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
The Preamble to the United States Constitution is a brief introductory statement of the Constitution's fundamental purposes and guiding principles. It states in general terms, and courts have referred to it as reliable evidence of the Founding Fathers' intentions regarding the Constitution's meaning and what they hoped the Constitution would achieve. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preamble_to_the_United_States_Constitution
  • https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Constitution_of_the_United_States_of_America#Preamble
  • https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Constitution_of_the_United_States_of_America
  • https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/United_States_Bill_of_Rights
  • https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Additional_amendments_to_the_United_States_Constitution
  • https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Portal:Unsuccessful_attempts_to_amend_the_United_States_Constitution
  • https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Articles_of_Confederation_and_Perpetual_Union
  • https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/United_States_Declaration_of_Independence
AMEND(MENT)S . . . WELL-MADE
  • First Amendment: The First Amendment (Amendment I) to the United States Constitution prevents the government from making laws which respect an establishment of religion, prohibit the free exercise of religion, or abridge the freedom of speech, the freedom of the press, the right to peaceably assemble, or the right to petition the government for redress of grievances. It was adopted on December 15, 1791, as one of the ten amendments that constitute the Bill of Rights. The Bill of Rights was originally proposed to assuage Anti-Federalist opposition to Constitutional ratification. Initially, the First Amendment applied only to laws enacted by the Congress, and many of its provisions were interpreted more narrowly than they are today. Beginning with Gitlow v. New York (1925), the Supreme Court applied the First Amendment to states—a process known as incorporation—through the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. In Everson v. Board of Education (1947), the Court drew on Thomas Jefferson's correspondence to call for "a wall of separation between church and State", though the precise boundary of this separation remains in dispute. Speech rights were expanded significantly in a series of 20th and 21st-century court decisions which protected various forms of political speech, anonymous speech, campaign financing, pornography, and school speech; these rulings also defined a series of exceptions to First Amendment protections. The Supreme Court overturned English common law precedent to increase the burden of proof for defamation and libel suits, most notably in New York Times Co. v. Sullivan (1964). Commercial speech, however, is less protected by the First Amendment than political speech, and is therefore subject to greater regulation. The Free Press Clause protects publication of information and opinions, and applies to a wide variety of media. In Near v. Minnesota (1931) and New York Times v. United States (1971), the Supreme Court ruled that the First Amendment protected against prior restraint—pre-publication censorship—in almost all cases. The Petition Clause protects the right to petition all branches and agencies of government for action. In addition to the right of assembly guaranteed by this clause, the Court has also ruled that the amendment implicitly protects freedom of association. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution
  • Second Amendment: The Second Amendment (Amendment II) to the United States Constitution protects an individual right to keep and bear arms. It was ratified on December 15, 1791 as part of the Bill of Rights. In District of Columbia v. Heller (2008), the Supreme Court affirmed for the first time that the right belongs to individuals, exclusively for self-defense in the home, while also including, as dicta, that the right is not unlimited and does not preclude the existence of certain long-standing prohibitions such as those forbidding "the possession of firearms by felons and the mentally ill" or restrictions on "the carrying of dangerous and unusual weapons." State and local governments are limited to the same extent as the federal government from infringing this right. The Second Amendment was based partially on the right to keep and bear arms in English common law and was influenced by the English Bill of Rights of 1689. Sir William Blackstone described this right as an auxiliary right, supporting the natural rights of self-defense and resistance to oppression, and the civic duty to act in concert in defense of the state. Any labels of rights as auxiliary must be viewed in the context of the inherent purpose of a Bill of Rights, which is to empower a group with the ability to achieve a mutually desired outcome, and not to necessarily enumerate or rank the importance of rights. Thus all rights enumerated in a Constitution are thus auxiliary in the eyes of Sir William Blackstone because all rights are only as good as the extent they are exercised in fact. While both James Monroe and John Adams supported the Constitution being ratified, its most influential framer was James Madison. In Federalist No. 46, Madison wrote how a federal army could be kept in check by state militias, "a standing army ... would be opposed [by] a militia." He argued that state militias "would be able to repel the danger" of a federal army, "It may well be doubted, whether a militia thus circumstanced could ever be conquered by such a proportion of regular troops." He contrasted the federal government of the United States to the European kingdoms, which he described as "afraid to trust the people with arms," and assured that "the existence of subordinate governments ... forms a barrier against the enterprises of ambition". https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution
  • Fourth Amendment: Prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures. In addition, it sets requirements for issuing warrants: warrants must be issued by a judge or magistrate, justified by probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and must particularly describe the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized. Fourth Amendment case law deals with three main issues: what government activities are "searches" and "seizures," what constitutes probable cause to conduct searches and seizures, and how violations of Fourth Amendment rights should be addressed. Early court decisions limited the amendment's scope to physical intrusion of property or persons, but with Katz v. United States (1967), the Supreme Court held that its protections extend to intrusions on the privacy of individuals as well as to physical locations. A warrant is needed for most search and seizure activities, but the Court has carved out a series of exceptions for consent searches, motor vehicle searches, evidence in plain view, exigent circumstances, border searches, and other situations. The exclusionary rule is one way the amendment is enforced. Established in Weeks v. United States (1914), this rule holds that evidence obtained as a result of a Fourth Amendment violation is generally inadmissible at criminal trials. Evidence discovered as a later result of an illegal search may also be inadmissible as "fruit of the poisonous tree", unless it inevitably would have been discovered by legal means. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourth_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution
  • Eight Amendment: Prohibits the federal, state, and local governments of the United States, or any other government, or any corporation, private enterprise, group, or individual, from imposing excessive bail, excessive fines, or cruel and unusual punishments, in any part of the US, on US property (i.e. a US embassy), or against any US citizen, or any resident of the US. This amendment was adopted on December 15, 1791, along with the rest of the United States Bill of Rights. The phrases in this amendment originated in the English Bill of Rights of 1689. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighth_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution
  • Ninth Amendment: The amendment as proposed by Congress in 1789 and later ratified as the Ninth Amendment reads as follows: The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ninth_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution
THE RECONSTRUCTION AMENDMENTS
The Reconstruction Amendments are the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth amendments to the United States Constitution, adopted between 1865 and 1870, the five years immediately following the Civil War. The last time the Constitution had been amended was with the Twelfth Amendment more than 60 years earlier in 1804. The Reconstruction amendments were important in implementing the Reconstruction of the American South after the war. Their proponents saw them as transforming the United States from a country that was (in Abraham Lincoln's words) "half slave and half free" to one in which the constitutionally guaranteed "blessings of liberty" would be extended to the entire populace, including the former slaves and their descendants. The Thirteenth Amendment (proposed in 1864 and ratified in 1865) abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except for those duly convicted of a crime. The Fourteenth Amendment (proposed in 1866 and ratified in 1868) addresses citizenship rights and equal protection of the laws for all persons. The Fifteenth Amendment (proposed in 1869 and ratified in 1870) prohibits discrimination in voting rights of citizens on the basis of "race, color, or previous condition of servitude." All races, regardless of prior slavery, could vote in some states of the early United States, such as New Jersey, provided that they could meet other requirements, such as property ownership. These amendments were intended to guarantee freedom to former slaves and to establish and prevent discrimination in certain civil rights to former slaves and all citizens of the United States. The promise of these amendments was eroded by state laws and federal court decisions over the course of the 19th century. In 1876 and later, some states passed Jim Crow laws that limited the rights of African-Americans. Important Supreme Court decisions that undermined these amendments were the Slaughter-House Cases in 1873, which prevented rights guaranteed under the Fourteenth Amendment's privileges or immunities clause from being extended to rights under state law; and Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896 which originated the phrase "separate but equal" and gave federal approval to Jim Crow laws. The full benefits of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth amendments were not realized until the Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education in 1954 and laws such as the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reconstruction_Amendments
  1. The Thirteenth Amendment: (Amendment XIII) to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. In Congress, it was passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864, and by the House on January 31, 1865. The amendment was ratified by the required number of states on December 6, 1865. On December 18, 1865, Secretary of State William H. Seward proclaimed its adoption. It was the first of the three Reconstruction Amendments adopted following the American Civil War. Since the American Revolution, states had divided into states that allowed or states that prohibited slavery. Slavery was implicitly permitted in the original Constitution through provisions such as Article I, Section 2, Clause 3, commonly known as the Three-Fifths Compromise, which detailed how each slave state's enslaved population would be factored into its total population count for the purposes of apportioning seats in the United States House of Representatives and direct taxes among the states. Though many slaves had been declared free by President Abraham Lincoln's 1863 Emancipation Proclamation, their post-war status was uncertain. On April 8, 1864, the Senate passed an amendment to abolish slavery. After one unsuccessful vote and extensive legislative maneuvering by the Lincoln administration, the House followed suit on January 31, 1865. The measure was swiftly ratified by nearly all Northern states, along with a sufficient number of border states up to the death of Lincoln, but approval came with President Andrew Johnson, who encouraged the "reconstructed" Southern states of Alabama, North Carolina and Georgia to agree, which brought the count to 27 states, and caused it to be adopted before the end of 1865. Though the amendment formally abolished slavery throughout the United States, factors such as Black Codes, white supremacist violence, and selective enforcement of statutes continued to subject some black Americans to involuntary labor, particularly in the South. In contrast to the other Reconstruction Amendments, the Thirteenth Amendment was rarely cited in later case law, but has been used to strike down peonage and some race-based discrimination as "badges and incidents of slavery." The Thirteenth Amendment applies to the actions of private citizens, while the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments apply only to state actors. The Thirteenth Amendment also enables Congress to pass laws against sex trafficking and other modern forms of slavery. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thirteenth_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution
  2. The Fourteenth Amendment: (Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments. Arguably one of the most consequential amendments to this day, the amendment addresses citizenship rights and equal protection of the laws and was proposed in response to issues related to former slaves following the American Civil War. The amendment was bitterly contested, particularly by the states of the defeated Confederacy, which were forced to ratify it in order to regain representation in Congress. The amendment, particularly its first section, is one of the most litigated parts of the Constitution, forming the basis for landmark decisions such as Brown v. Board of Education (1954) regarding racial segregation, Roe v. Wade (1973) regarding abortion, Bush v. Gore (2000) regarding the 2000 presidential election, and Obergefell v. Hodges (2015) regarding same-sex marriage. The amendment limits the actions of all state and local officials, including those acting on behalf of such an official. The amendment's first section includes several clauses: the Citizenship Clause, Privileges or Immunities Clause, Due Process Clause, and Equal Protection Clause. The Citizenship Clause provides a broad definition of citizenship, nullifying the Supreme Court's decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857), which had held that Americans descended from African slaves could not be citizens of the United States. Since the Slaughter-House Cases (1873), the Privileges or Immunities Clause has been interpreted to do very little. The Due Process Clause prohibits state and local governments from depriving persons of life, liberty, or property without a fair procedure. The Supreme Court has ruled this clause makes most of the Bill of Rights as applicable to the states as it is to the federal government, as well as to recognize substantive and procedural requirements that state laws must satisfy. The Equal Protection Clause requires each state to provide equal protection under the law to all people, including all non-citizens, within its jurisdiction. This clause has been the basis for many decisions rejecting irrational or unnecessary discrimination against people belonging to various groups. The second, third, and fourth sections of the amendment are seldom litigated. However, the second section's reference to "rebellion, or other crime" has been invoked as a constitutional ground for felony disenfranchisement. The fourth section was held, in Perry v. United States (1935), to prohibit a current Congress from abrogating a contract of debt incurred by a prior Congress. The fifth section gives Congress the power to enforce the amendment's provisions by "appropriate legislation"; however, under City of Boerne v. Flores (1997), this power may not be used to contradict a Supreme Court decision interpreting the amendment. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourteenth_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution
  3. The Fifteenth Amendment: (Amendment XV) to the United States Constitution prohibits the federal government and each state from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude". It was ratified on February 3, 1870, as the third and last of the Reconstruction Amendments. In the final years of the American Civil War and the Reconstruction Era that followed, Congress repeatedly debated the rights of the millions of former black slaves. By 1869, amendments had been passed to abolish slavery and provide citizenship and equal protection under the laws, but the election of Ulysses S. Grant to the presidency in 1868 convinced a majority of Republicans that protecting the franchise of black male voters was important for the party's future. On February 26, 1869, after rejecting more sweeping versions of a suffrage amendment, Congress proposed a compromise amendment banning franchise restrictions on the basis of race, color, or previous servitude. After surviving a difficult ratification fight, the amendment was certified as duly ratified and part of the Constitution on March 30, 1870. United States Supreme Court decisions in the late nineteenth century interpreted the amendment narrowly. From 1890 to 1910, southern states adopted new state constitutions and enacted laws that raised barriers to voter registration. This resulted in most black voters and many poor white ones being disenfranchised by poll taxes and discriminatory literacy tests, among other barriers to voting, from which white male voters were exempted by grandfather clauses. A system of white primaries and violent intimidation by white groups also suppressed black participation. In the twentieth century, the Court began to interpret the amendment more broadly, striking down grandfather clauses in Guinn v. United States (1915) and dismantling the white primary system in the "Texas primary cases" (1927–1953). Along with later measures such as the Twenty-fourth Amendment, which forbade poll taxes in federal elections, and Harper v. Virginia State Board of Elections (1966), which forbade poll taxes in state elections, these decisions significantly increased black participation in the American political system. To enforce the amendment, Congress enacted the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which provided federal oversight of elections in discriminatory jurisdictions, banned literacy tests and similar discriminatory devices, and created legal remedies for people affected by voting discrimination. The amendment created a split within the women's suffrage movement over the amendment not prohibiting denying the women the right to vote on account of sex. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fifteenth_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_constitutional_law
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Convention_to_propose_amendments_to_the_United_States_Constitution
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exclusionary_rule
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fruit_of_the_poisonous_tree
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_amendments_to_the_United_States_Constitution#Ratified_amendments
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_amendments_to_the_United_States_Constitution#Unratified_amendments
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_proposed_amendments_to_the_United_States_Constitution
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rule_of_law
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unenumerated_rights
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Bill_of_Rights
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Constitution

 

Resources & Articles: U.S. History and Politics
  • http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/2 (The United States Bill of Rights)
  • https://www.archives.gov/founding-docs
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Hamilton
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-Federalism
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Articles_of_Confederation
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bicameralism
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_of_Rights
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confederate_States_of_America
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confederation
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continental_Congress
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Connecticut_Compromise
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Declaration_of_Independence_of_the_United_States
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Declaration_of_the_Rights_of_Man_and_of_the_Citizen
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devolution
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Direct_election
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disenfranchisement_after_the_Reconstruction_Era
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighth_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electoral_College_(United_States)
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_government_of_the_United_States#Executive_branch
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_government_of_the_United_States
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federalism
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federalism_in_the_United_States
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_judiciary_of_the_United_States
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emancipation_Proclamation
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Founding_Fathers_of_the_United_States
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_Freedoms
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourteenth_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourth_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freedom_of_speech_in_the_United_States
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fugitive_Slave_Act_of_1850
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_rights
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Individual_rights
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intergovernmentalism
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Madison
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Hancock
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Jay
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legislature
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_amendments_to_the_United_States_Constitution#Ratified_amendments
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_amendments_to_the_United_States_Constitution#Unratified_amendments
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lower_house
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magna_Carta
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ninth_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-voting_members_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patrick_Henry
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/President_of_the_United_States
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ratification
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ratification#Ratification_in_the_United_States_Constitution
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ratification#United_States
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Henry_Lee
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Sherman
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Adams
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Continental_Congress
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Separation_of_powers
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slave_power
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/States%27_rights
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Federalist_Papers
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whiskey_Rebellion
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Jefferson
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three-Fifths_Compromise
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_drafting_and_ratification_of_the_United_States_Constitution
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unenumerated_rights
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Bill_of_Rights
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Congress
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Constitution
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_House_of_Representatives
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Senate
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Upper_house
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vice_President_of_the_United_States

 

~ # ~
Sources for Meta on the Meta: "You Say You Want a Revolution? Weeeeell . . . Y’know. . . ."

 

 

Multimedia

 

 

  1. "The Constitution, the Articles, and Federalism: Crash Course US History #8." CrashCourse, Youtube. March 21, 2013. [13:03] In which John Green teaches you about the United States Constitution. During and after the American Revolutionary War, the government of the new country operated under the Articles of Confederation. While these Articles got the young nation through its war with England, they weren't of much use when it came to running a country. So, the founding fathers decided try their hand at nation-building, and they created the Constitution of the United States, which you may remember as the one that says We The People at the top. John will tell you how the convention came together, some of the compromises that had to be made to pass this thing, and why it's very lucky that the framers installed a somewhat reasonable process for making changes to the thing. You'll learn about Shays' Rebellion, the Federalist Papers, the elite vs rabble dynamic of the houses of congress, and start to find out just what an anti-federalist is. Hey teachers and students - Check out CommonLit's free collection of reading passages and curriculum resources to learn more about the events of this episode. Founding Fathers debated over how to govern the new nation, beginning with the Articles of Confederation: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?q=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.commonlit.org%2Ftexts%2Farticles-of-confederation&redir_token=6rNq5JYon7pOpOdq05pVlXRKXtl8MTU1Nzc1MDg0NkAxNTU3NjY0NDQ2&event=video_description&v=bO7FQsCcbD8. When the Founding Fathers finally wrote the Constitution, they realized that they needed to add The Bill of Rights to get citizens on board with the new government: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?q=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.commonlit.org%2Ftexts%2Fthe-bill-of-rights&redir_token=6rNq5JYon7pOpOdq05pVlXRKXtl8MTU1Nzc1MDg0NkAxNTU3NjY0NDQ2&event=video_description&v=bO7FQsCcbD8. https://youtu.be/bO7FQsCcbD8
  2. [Unaired but used as reference and source] "Where US Politics Came From: Crash Course US History #9." CrashCourse, Youtube. April 4, 2013.[13:56] In which John Green teaches you where American politicians come from. In the beginning, soon after the US constitution was adopted, politics were pretty non-existent. George Washington was elected president with no opposition, everything was new and exciting, and everyone just got along. For several months. Then the contentious debate about the nature of the United States began, and it continues to this day. Washington and his lackey/handler Alexander Hamilton pursued an elitist program of federalism. They attempted to strengthen the central government, create a strong nation-state, and leave less of the governance to the states, They wanted to create debt, encourage manufacturing, and really modernize the new nation/ The opposition, creatively known as the anti-federalists, wanted to build some kind of agrarian pseudo-paradise where every (white) man could have his own farm, and live a free, self-reliant life. The founding father who epitomized this view was Thomas Jefferson. By the time Adams became president, the anti-federalists had gotten the memo about how alienating a name like anti-federalist can be. It's so much more appealing to voters if your party is for something rather than being defined by what you're against, you know? In any case, Jefferson and his acolytes changed their name to the Democratic-Republican Party, which covered a lot of bases, and proceeded to protest nearly everything Adams did. Lest you think this week is all boring politics,you'll be thrilled to hear this episode has a Whiskey Rebellion, a Quasi-War, anti-French sentiment, some controversial treaties, and something called the XYZ Affair, which sounds very exciting. Learn all about it this week with John Green. Hey teachers and students - Check out CommonLit's free collection of reading passages and curriculum resources to learn more about the events of this episode. Much of America's politics came from debates between democratic republican Thomas Jefferson and federalist Alexander Hamilton: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?event=video_description&v=r161cLYzuDI&redir_token=T783AgfAlDgwHV1z-P7DVNRu8ed8MTU1Nzc1MjYwN0AxNTU3NjY2MjA3&q=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.commonlit.org%2Ftexts%2Falexander-hamilton. While Jefferson would go on to become president, Hamilton heavily influenced President George Washington who set many American political ideals in his farewell address that Hamilton helped craft: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?event=video_description&v=r161cLYzuDI&redir_token=T783AgfAlDgwHV1z-P7DVNRu8ed8MTU1Nzc1MjYwN0AxNTU3NjY2MjA3&q=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.commonlit.org%2Ftexts%2Fwashington-s-farewell-address. https://youtu.be/r161cLYzuDI
Resources & Articles
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-Federalism
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Articles_of_Confederation
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federalism
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federalism_in_the_United_States
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Individual_rights
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ratification
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ratification#Ratification_in_the_United_States_Constitution
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ratification#United_States
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Separation_of_powers
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/States%27_rights
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statute_law
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Federalist_Papers
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three-Fifths_Compromise
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_drafting_and_ratification_of_the_United_States_Constitution
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unenumerated_rights
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Bill_of_Rights
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Congress
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Constitution

 

 

~#~

 

 

Sources for Black X-Files: "You Say That it's the Constitution? Weeeeell . . . Y’know. . . ."

 

 

Multimedia

 

 

  1. [Unaired during this segment but used as reference and source] "The Constitution, the Articles, and Federalism: Crash Course US History #8." CrashCourse, Youtube. March 21, 2013. [13:03] In which John Green teaches you about the United States Constitution. During and after the American Revolutionary War, the government of the new country operated under the Articles of Confederation. While these Articles got the young nation through its war with England, they weren't of much use when it came to running a country. So, the founding fathers decided try their hand at nation-building, and they created the Constitution of the United States, which you may remember as the one that says We The People at the top. John will tell you how the convention came together, some of the compromises that had to be made to pass this thing, and why it's very lucky that the framers installed a somewhat reasonable process for making changes to the thing. You'll learn about Shays' Rebellion, the Federalist Papers, the elite vs rabble dynamic of the houses of congress, and start to find out just what an anti-federalist is. Hey teachers and students - Check out CommonLit's free collection of reading passages and curriculum resources to learn more about the events of this episode. Founding Fathers debated over how to govern the new nation, beginning with the Articles of Confederation: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?q=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.commonlit.org%2Ftexts%2Farticles-of-confederation&redir_token=6rNq5JYon7pOpOdq05pVlXRKXtl8MTU1Nzc1MDg0NkAxNTU3NjY0NDQ2&event=video_description&v=bO7FQsCcbD8. When the Founding Fathers finally wrote the Constitution, they realized that they needed to add The Bill of Rights to get citizens on board with the new government: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?q=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.commonlit.org%2Ftexts%2Fthe-bill-of-rights&redir_token=6rNq5JYon7pOpOdq05pVlXRKXtl8MTU1Nzc1MDg0NkAxNTU3NjY0NDQ2&event=video_description&v=bO7FQsCcbD8. https://youtu.be/bO7FQsCcbD8
  2. [Unaired but used as reference and source] "Where US Politics Came From: Crash Course US History #9." CrashCourse, Youtube. April 4, 2013.[13:56] In which John Green teaches you where American politicians come from. In the beginning, soon after the US constitution was adopted, politics were pretty non-existent. George Washington was elected president with no opposition, everything was new and exciting, and everyone just got along. For several months. Then the contentious debate about the nature of the United States began, and it continues to this day. Washington and his lackey/handler Alexander Hamilton pursued an elitist program of federalism. They attempted to strengthen the central government, create a strong nation-state, and leave less of the governance to the states, They wanted to create debt, encourage manufacturing, and really modernize the new nation/ The opposition, creatively known as the anti-federalists, wanted to build some kind of agrarian pseudo-paradise where every (white) man could have his own farm, and live a free, self-reliant life. The founding father who epitomized this view was Thomas Jefferson. By the time Adams became president, the anti-federalists had gotten the memo about how alienating a name like anti-federalist can be. It's so much more appealing to voters if your party is for something rather than being defined by what you're against, you know? In any case, Jefferson and his acolytes changed their name to the Democratic-Republican Party, which covered a lot of bases, and proceeded to protest nearly everything Adams did. Lest you think this week is all boring politics,you'll be thrilled to hear this episode has a Whiskey Rebellion, a Quasi-War, anti-French sentiment, some controversial treaties, and something called the XYZ Affair, which sounds very exciting. Learn all about it this week with John Green. Hey teachers and students - Check out CommonLit's free collection of reading passages and curriculum resources to learn more about the events of this episode. Much of America's politics came from debates between democratic republican Thomas Jefferson and federalist Alexander Hamilton: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?event=video_description&v=r161cLYzuDI&redir_token=T783AgfAlDgwHV1z-P7DVNRu8ed8MTU1Nzc1MjYwN0AxNTU3NjY2MjA3&q=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.commonlit.org%2Ftexts%2Falexander-hamilton. While Jefferson would go on to become president, Hamilton heavily influenced President George Washington who set many American political ideals in his farewell address that Hamilton helped craft: https://www.youtube.com/redirect?event=video_description&v=r161cLYzuDI&redir_token=T783AgfAlDgwHV1z-P7DVNRu8ed8MTU1Nzc1MjYwN0AxNTU3NjY2MjA3&q=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.commonlit.org%2Ftexts%2Fwashington-s-farewell-address. https://youtu.be/r161cLYzuDI
Resources & Articles
  1. "Crash Course: U.S. History." Article 1195, Nerdfighteriawiki.com. John [Green] began the "Libertage" (in place of the "Mongoltage" from World History), featuring a brief clip of an explosion and a sequence of flashing American images, with "America" and an audience-suggested phrase in large letters across the screen. Loud rock plays throughout, and the phrase often is humorously self-mocking in nature (such as "Give Me Liberty or Give Me a Triple Cheeseburger"). https://nerdfighteria.info/article/1195
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Hamilton
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-Federalism
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Articles_of_Confederation
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bicameralism
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_of_rights
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confederate_States_of_America
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confederation
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continental_Congress
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Connecticut_Compromise
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Declaration_of_Independence_of_the_United_States
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Declaration_of_the_Rights_of_Man_and_of_the_Citizen
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devolution
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Direct_election
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disenfranchisement_after_the_Reconstruction_Era
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighth_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electoral_College_(United_States)
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emancipation_Proclamation
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_government_of_the_United_States#Executive_branch
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_government_of_the_United_States
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federalism
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federalism_in_the_United_States
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_judiciary_of_the_United_States
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federation
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Founding_Fathers_of_the_United_States
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_Freedoms
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourteenth_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourth_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freedom_of_speech_in_the_United_States
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Revolution
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fugitive_Slave_Act_of_1850
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_rights
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Individual_rights
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intergovernmentalism
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Madison
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Hancock
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Jay
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legislature
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_amendments_to_the_United_States_Constitution#Ratified_amendments
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_amendments_to_the_United_States_Constitution#Unratified_amendments
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lower_house
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magna_Carta
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ninth_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-voting_members_of_the_United_States_House_of_Representatives
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patrick_Henry
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/President_of_the_United_States
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ratification
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ratification#Ratification_in_the_United_States_Constitution
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ratification#United_States
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Henry_Lee
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Sherman
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Adams
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Continental_Congress
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Separation_of_powers
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slave_power
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/States%27_rights
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Federalist_Papers
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whiskey_Rebellion
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Jefferson
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three-Fifths_Compromise
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_drafting_and_ratification_of_the_United_States_Constitution
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unenumerated_rights
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unitary_state
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Bill_of_Rights
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Congress
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Constitution
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_House_of_Representatives
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Senate
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Upper_house
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vice_President_of_the_United_States

 

 


Music Playlists
First Hour Music and Playlists:
  1. Tom Tom Club: "As Above So Below"
  2. Rufus Thomas: "Do the Funky Chicken"
  3. The Clash: "London Calling"

 


Second Hour Music and Playlists:

 

  1. The Cure: "Boys Don't Cry"
  2. Tower of Power: "Only So Much Oil in the Ground"
  3. Jill Scott: "Back Together Again"
  4. Marvin Gaye: "Inner City Blues"