Host Tiokasin Ghosthorse spends the hour with Steven Solomon, Sr., an elder, lifelong Lummi fisherman and traditional knowledge holder of the reef net practice. “Reef net fishing is an ancient, sustainable salmon-harvesting technique created and perfected by the Lummi and other Coast Salish Indigenous people over a millennium. Rather than chasing the fish, this technique uses ropes to create an artificial reef that channels fish toward a net stretched between two anchored boats. Fishers observe the water and pull in the net at the right moment, intercepting salmon as they migrate from the Pacific Ocean to the Fraser River near present-day Washington state and British Columbia. Colonialism, government policies, habitat destruction, and declining salmon populations have separated tribes from this tradition. Today, only 12 reef net permits exist, with just one belonging to the Lummi Nation. Many tribal members hope to revive reef net fishing to restore their cultural identity and a sustainable salmon harvest but face difficulties balancing economic realities with preserving what the Lummi consider a sacred heritage.” — Liz Kimbrough, author, “Last of the reef netters: An Indigenous, sustainable salmon fishery,” Mongabay, Nov. 21, 2023:

Production Credits:

Tiokasin Ghosthorse (Lakota), Host and Executive Producer

Liz Hill (Red Lake Ojibwe), Producer

Karen Ramirez (Mayan), Studio Engineer, Radio Kingston

Tiokasin Ghosthorse, Audio Editor

Kevin Richardson, Podcast Editor

Music Selections:

1. Song Title: Tahi Roots Mix (First Voices Radio Theme Song)

Artist: Moana and the Moa Hunters

Album: Tahi (1993)

Label: Southside Records (Australia and New Zealand)

2. Song Title: Freedom Now  (feat. Golshifteh Farahani & Arooj Aftab)

Artist: Nick Mulvey

Album: Freedom Now (released Feb. 13, 2024)

Producers: The Parisi Brothers (Ed Sheeran, Fred Again).

3. Song Title: Ambrosia

Artist: A Reminiscent Drive

Album: Ambrosia (2000)

Label: F Communications

4. Song Title: War / No More Trouble (Live at The Pavillon De Paris - 1977)

Artist: Bob Marley and the Wailers

Album: Gold (2005)

Label: Island Records

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